Hydration is among the most important things to take care of during our days, and it is one of the worst enemies for any sportsman.
In the case of trail running, being an energy-intensive discipline, it is necessary to stay constantly hydrated, as a 2% to 5% loss of water can cause a significant drop in physical performance.
In order to achieve a good performance, it is essential to follow a precise supplementation strategy to avoid feeling thirsty when it is already too late.

The first symptoms of dehydration could appear after the loss of low percentages of body fluids. Here are the main symptoms useful to recognize excessive fluid loss:
• Tiredness
• Loss of concentration
• Nausea
• Cramps (with 5% fluids)
• Decline in reflexes
• Decline in performance
• Sense of fainting (with 20/25% liquids)

A good way to distribute the intake of water and other liquids throughout the day could be as follows:
• Breakfast 1 cup of hot drink, 1 glass of cold drink (fruit juice or milk)
• Mid morning 2 glasses of water, 1 glass of (green) tea;
• Lunch 2 glasses of water
• Mid afternoon 2 glasses of water, 1 glass of (green) tea
• Dinner 2 glasses of water
• Before going to bed 2 glasses of water (-5% liquids).

During training, particularly if it is intense and long as in trail running, it is advisable to use a drink that also contains energy and salt components, with the possible addition of carbohydrates. It is preferable to use drinks with an isotonic formulation for rapid gastric emptying. In this case, Mineral Plus and I'm Pro Intra Workout are recommended.

When and how much should you drink before training?

It is important to distribute your fluid intake throughout the course of your physical performance:
• Drink 250ml of still water at least 15 before training (it is recommended to drink 1/2 litre of water 2 hours before the start of physical activity)
• Carry and drink at least 500ml/hour of energy drink with mineral salts, preferably isotonic, supplementing the loss of fluids with other sources of water (identified along the way
• Drink liquids regularly, at least 150ml every 15 20 minutes. Depending on the outside temperature, increase your intake
• In the case of very high temperatures, over 28 °°, it could be a good idea to dilute the drink more , in order to dilute the carbohydra tes and, at the same time, slightly increase the sodium concentration

What are the benefits of good hydration?

The benefits of good hydration are many
• Better Focus on the athletic act
• Avoiding potential sickness due to high temperatures;
• Increased per formance, thanks to a more efficient cardio vascular system
• Limit the risk of hyperglycaemia (excess blood glucose) related to hydration
• Keep muscles and joints in optimal condition
• Help recovery, thanks to faster transport of macro and micronutrients.

After physical exertion, it is important to remember to avoid alcoholic beverages, as they adversely affect muscle recovery and they are unhealthy for the liver, which i s responsible for cleaning the body from toxins produced by physical a ctivity.

Dr. Andrea Zonza
B iologist ProAction R&D